SMART Recovery (Self Management and Recovery Thinking)

SMART Recovery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

SMART Recovery (Self Management and Recovery Training) is an international non-profit organization which provides assistance to individuals seeking abstinence from addictive behaviors. The approach used is secular and science-based using non-confrontational motivational, behavioral and cognitive methods.[1] Substance/activity dependence is viewed by the organization as a dysfunctional habit (rather than a disease), while allowing that it is possible that certain people have a predisposition towards addictive behavior.[2]




The program uses principles found in Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), [3] and techniques taken from Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), particularly in the version called Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), as well as scientifically validated research on treatment.[4]

The organization's program emphasizes four areas (called the Four Points) in the process of Recovery: Building Motivation, Coping with Urges, Problem Solving, and Lifestyle Balance.[5] The "SMART Toolbox" is a collection of various MET, CBT and REBT methods (or "tools") which address the Four Points.[6]

The program does not use the twelve-steps which make up the basis of the various "Anonymous" self-help groups (e.g. AA, NA, etc.) and is generally listed as an "Alternative to AA" or an "Alternative to the Twelve-Steps."[7][8][9]

History and Organization

Incorporated in 1992 as the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Self-Help Network (ADASHN), the organization began operating under the SMART Recovery name in 1994.[10][11]

General operations are overseen by a volunteer Board of Directors[12] with review from an International Advisory Council of experts.[13] Local groups are run by volunteers known as "Facilitators" with the assistance of volunteer recovery professionals called "Volunteer Advisors." A central office is currently maintained in Mentor, Ohio


The meetings are free for all wishing to attend, and are intended to be informational as well as supportive.[14] Approximately 365 weekly group meetings led by volunteer facilitators are held worldwide[15]. In addition, the organization provides online resources and support to the volunteers and those attending the groups and one or more daily online meetings.[16]

Meetings are also held in correctional facilities in many states including: Arizona, California, Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.[17]


SMART is recognized by the American Academy of Family Physicians,[18] as well as the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)[19] and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).[20] NIDA and NIAAA are agencies of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

See also


  1. ^ "Religiosity and Participation in Self-Help Groups", The Walsh Group, 2007-10-17. Retrieved on 2007-12-11. 
  2. ^ Horvath, AT (October 2000). "Smart Recovery: Addiction Recovery Support from a Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective". Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 18 (3): 181-191.
  3. ^ Miller, W.R. (1995), "Motivational Enhancement Therapy Manual: A Clinical Research Guide for Therapists Treating Individuals With Alcohol Abuse and Dependence.", Project MATCH Monograph Series, National Institute of Health
  4. ^ Hester & Miller (2002). Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches: Effective Alternatives. University of Michigan: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 0205360645. 
  5. ^ Shaw, BR; et al (2005). Addiction & Recovery for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, 176-177. ISBN 0764576259. 
  6. ^ Brooks, A.J.; Penn, P. E. (2003). "Comparing treatments for dual diagnosis: Twelve-Step and Self Management and Recovery Training". American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 29 (2): 359–383.
  7. ^ Miller, W. R.; Kurtz, E. (1994). "Models of alcoholism used in treatment: Contrasting A.A. and other perspectives with which it is often confused". Journal of Studies on Alcohol 55: 159-166.
  8. ^ Volpicelli, Joseph; Maia Szalavitz (2000). Recovery Options: The Complete Guide. Wiley Publishing, 149-151. ISBN 047134575X. 
  9. ^ "SMART Alternative Self-Help Groups Tackle Substance Abuse", Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-12-12. 
  10. ^ Lemanski, Michael J. (2000). Addiction Alternatives for Recovery. The Humanist. University of Michigan Health System. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  11. ^ Humphreys, Keith (2003). Circles of Recovery: Self-help Organizations for Addictions. Cambridge University Press, 82-86. ISBN 0521792770. 
  12. ^ Board of Directors 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  13. ^ International Advisory Council 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  14. ^ Shaw, BR; et al (2005). Addiction & Recovery for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, 176-177. ISBN 0764576259. 
  15. ^ Source SMART Central office. This includes international groups in 7 countries.. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  16. ^ Online Meeting Schedule. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  17. ^ Source - SMART Central Office. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  18. ^ (2003-04-01) "Substance Abuse--How To Recognize It". American Family Physician 67 (7). Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  19. ^ "Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide", National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved on 2007-12-12. 
  20. ^ Alcohol and Drug Information. US Dept of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.

Further Reading

  • Brown JM. (1998) Self-Regulation and the Addictive Behaviors. in Treating Addictive Behaviors, 2nd ed. Miller WR & Heather N. eds. Plenum Press, NY. ISBN 0306458527
  • Ellis A. & Velten E. (1992) Rational Steps To Quitting Alcohol: When AA Doesn't Work For You. Barricade Books, NY. ISBN 0942637534
  • Gerstein J. (1998) Rational Recovery, SMART Recovery and non-twelve step recovery programs. In Principles Of Addiction Medicine, 2nd ed. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Chevy Chase ISBN 1880425084
  • Mattson ME. (1998) Finding the Right Approach. in Miller WR & Heather N. Treating Addictive Behaviors. 2nd ed. Plenum Press, NY. ISBN 0306458527
  • Myers PL. (2002) Beware of the Man of One Book: Processing Ideology in Addictions Education. J of Teaching in the Addictions. pp 1:69-90
  • Vuchinich RE & Tucker JA. (1998) Choice, Behavioral Economics, and Addictive Behavior Patterns. in Treating Addictive Behaviors ISBN 0306458527
  • Whittinghill D., et al. The benefits of a self-efficacy approach to substance abuse counseling in the era of managed care. J Addictions & Offender Counseling. 2000; 20:64-74

External links

Source: Wikipedia

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.)

Faith (for Content):