Drug Abuse Resistance Education

Drug Abuse Resistance Education

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Logo of D.A.R.E

Drug Abuse Resistance Education, better known as DARE or D.A.R.E., is an international education program that seeks to prevent use of illegal drugs, membership in gangs, and violent behavior. DARE, which has expanded globally since its founding in 1983, is a demand-side drug control strategy of the U.S. War on Drugs. Students who enter the program sign a pledge not to use drugs or join gangs and are taught by local law enforcement about the dangers of drug use in a high-tech, interactive, ten week in-school curriculum. According to the D.A.R.E. website, 36 million children around the world — 26 million in the U.S. — are part of the program. The program is implemented in 80% of the nation's school districts, and 54 countries around the world.[1] D.A.R.E. was one of the first national programs promoting zero tolerance. The D.A.R.E. program has received numerous accolades and awards for delivering the message to keep "kids off drugs."[1]

D.A.R.E. America, Inc., a national non-profit organization, is the main resource center that manages the program, provides officer training, supports the development and evaluation of the D.A.R.E. curriculum, markets student educational materials, sells D.A.R.E.-branded products, monitors instruction standards and program results, and maintains awareness of the program.


D.A.R.E. curriculum

The instructors of the D.A.R.E. curriculum are local police officers who must undergo 80 hours of special training in areas such as child development, classroom management, teaching techniques, and communication skills. For high school instructors, 40 hours of additional training are prescribed.[1][2] Police officers are invited by the local school districts to speak and work with students. Police officers are permitted to work in the classroom by the school district and do not need to be licensed teachers. There are programs for different age levels. Working with the classroom teachers, students work over a number of sessions on workbooks and interactive discussions.

Elementary students are given lessons about the effects of[3]

The senior high school D.A.R.E. project is a reinforcement with the prime lessons for students[4]

  • to act in their own best interest when facing high-risk, low-gain choices
  • to resist peer pressure and other influences in making their personal choices

The D.A.R.E. program enables students to interact with police officers in a controlled, safe, classroom environment. This helps students and officers meet and understand each other in a friendly manner, instead of having to meet when a student commits a crime, or when officers must intervene in domestic disputes and severe family problems.[5] The Surgeon General reports that positive effects have been demonstrated regarding attitudes towards the police.[6]

It is also a crime and violence prevention education program. The D.A.R.E. program cites cases where assertiveness and self-defense education helped prevent students from being harmed. D.A.R.E. officers also help schools when children are threatened, and their presence helps alleviate concerns about situations like school shootings and other threats of violence to children while at school.[5]


D.A.R.E. America, a national non-profit organization, was founded in 1983 by Los Angeles Police chief Daryl Gates. Narcotics-related crimes were the main problems that the LAPD faced. D.A.R.E. was based on his contention that the present generation had already surrendered to drug dependency and that the country's future lay with the readiness of its children to resist involvement. Gates believed that uniformed police officers were the best equipped to deliver the message that drugs are bad. [7]

The Safe and drug-free schools act (Improving America's Schools Act of 1994) provided funding for use in D.A.R.E. programs in the United States.

Researchers at Indiana University, commissioned by Indiana school officials in 1992, found that those who completed the DARE program subsequently had significantly higher rates of hallucinogenic drug use than those not exposed to the program.[8] Other researchers found DARE to be counterproductive in 1994.[9] In 1994, the National Institute of Justice published a summary[10] of a study conducted by the Research Triangle Institute.[11] The study suggested that D.A.R.E. would benefit from a revised curriculum. This was launched in the fall of 1994.

In 1995, a report to the California Department of Education by Joel Brown Ph. D. stated that none of California's drug education programs worked, including DARE.[12]

In the 1996 State of the Union address, President Bill Clinton singled out D.A.R.E. for praise: "People like these D.A.R.E. officers are making a real impression on grade-school children that will give them strength to say no when the time comes."[13]

In 1997, Rolling Stone magazine became the defendant in a libel lawsuit as a result of publishing a partially fabricated story by Stephen Glass about DARE that first appeared in The New Republic. Glass later settled separately with DARE[14] The suit against Rolling Stone was dismissed in April 2000. U.S. District Judge Virginia A. Phillips said there was "no clear and convincing evidence that Rolling Stone acted with malice when it published freelancer Stephen Glass's article accusing DARE of harassing critics."[15]

In 1998, A grant from the National Institute of Justice to the University of Maryland resulted in a report to the NIJ, which among other statements, concluded that "D.A.R.E. does not work to reduce substance use."[16] D.A.R.E. expanded and modified the social competency development its curriculum is response to the report. Research by Dr. Dennis Rosenbaum in 1998,[17] found that DARE graduates were more likely than others to drink alcohol, smoke tobacco and use illegal drugs. Psychologist Dr. William Colson asserted in 1998 that DARE increased drug awareness so that "as they get a little older, they (students) become very curious about these drugs they've learned about from police officers."[18] The scientific research evidence in 1998 indicated that the officers were unsuccessful in preventing the increased awareness and curiosity from being translated into illegal use. The evidence suggested that, by exposing young impressionable children to drugs, the program was, in fact , encouraging and nurturing drug use.[19] Studies funded by the National Institute of Justice in 1998,[16][20] and the California Legislative Analyst's Office in 2000[21] also concluded that the program was ineffective.

In 2001, the Surgeon General of the United States, David Satcher M.D. Ph.D., placed the DARE program in the category of "Does Not Work."[6] The U.S. General Accountability Office concluded in 2003 that the program was sometimes counterproductive in some populations, with those who graduate from DARE later having higher rates of drug use.[22]

In 2007, a new curriculum for prescription drug abuse and over-the-counter drug abuse was created by D.A.R.E. America. Other contributors included: law enforcement officials; PhRMA; Abbott Laboratories; the Consumer Healthcare and Products Association (CHPA); and a number of other organizations, including the ONDCP, the DEA, the FDA, the NIDA, the SAMHSA Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (SAMHSA/CSAT) and the Partnership for a Drug-Free America.[23]


D.A.R.E. America is funded largely as a crime prevention program working through education within schools. It receives funding from the U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Bureau of Justice Administration, U.S. Office of Justice and Delinquency Prevention, corporations, foundations, individuals and other sources. [24] In addition, state training and local programs typically receive funding from state legislature appropriations, state agencies, counties, cities, school districts, police agencies, individuals, and community fund raisers and other sources. [25][26][27][28]


The cost of the DARE program in the United States was estimated at $1.04 to $1.34 billion per year in 2001.[29] The program is used in about 80% of all school districts in the U.S., [1] with an estimated 7,838 to 9,264 law enforcement officers participating full or part-time in the program.[29]

Critical view of D.A.R.E.

One quote from the 1998 University of Maryland report presented to the U.S. National Institute of Justice was, "Officials of D.A.R.E. America are often quoted as saying that the strong public support for the program is a better indicator of its utility than scientific studies." [16]

Jennifer Gonnerman of the Village Voice stated in 1999, "In DARE's worldview, Marlboro Light cigarettes, Bacardi rum, and a drag from a joint are all equally dangerous. For that matter, so is snorting a few lines of cocaine." DARE "isn't really education. It's indoctrination."[30]

DARE tends to rely on feelings and impressions. One leader explained that "I don't have any statistics for you. Our strongest numbers are the numbers that don't show up.” [31]

An article in Reason Magazine cites that Administrators of the DARE program tried to suppress unfavorable research in the 1994 study[11][10] conducted by the Research Triangle Institute. The “organization spent $41,000 to try to prevent widespread distribution of the RTI report and started legal action aimed at squelching the study.” [32] The director of publication of the American Journal of Public Health told USA Today that "DARE has tried to interfere with the publication of this. They tried to intimidate us."[33] After reporter Dennis Cauchon published a story questioning the effectiveness of DARE in USA Today, he received letters from classrooms around the country, all addressed to "Dear DARE-basher," and all using nearly identical language.[33]

David J. Hanson Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the State University of New York at Potsdam, NY, contends that labeling alcoholic beverages as gateway drugs and also equating alcohol with other drugs is misleading and counterproductive.[34]

"D.A.R.E. has always warred on the family, pitting kids against parents" according to Joel Miller, a former aide for the California legislature. He writes that "Children are asked to submit to D.A.R.E. police officers sensitive written questionnaires that can easily refer to the kids' homes" and that "a D.A.R.E. lesson called 'The Three R's: Recognize, Resist, Report' … encourages children to tell friends, teachers or police if they find drugs at home."[35]

In addition, "D.A.R.E. officers are instructed to put a 'D.A.R.E. Box' in every classroom, into which students may drop 'drug information' or questions under the pretense of anonymity. Officers are instructed that if a student 'makes a disclosure related to drug use,' the officer should report the information to further authorities, both school and police. This apparently applies whether the 'drug use' was legal or illegal, harmless or harmful. In a number of communities around the country, students have been enlisted by the DARE officer as informants against their parents."[36]

As a result, "children sometimes confide the names of people they suspect are illegally using drugs. A mother and father in Caroline County, Md., were jailed for 30 days after their daughter informed a police DARE instructor that her parents had marijuana plants in their home, according to a story in The Washington Post in January 1993. The Wall Street Journal reported in 1992 that ‘In two recent cases in Boston, children who had tipped police stepped out of their homes carrying DARE diplomas as police arrived to arrest their parents.’ In 1991, 10-year-old Joaquin Herrera of Englewood, Colo., phoned 911, announced, ‘I'm a DARE kid’ and summoned police to his house to discover a couple of ounces of marijuana hidden in a bookshelf, according to the Rocky Mountain News. The boy sat outside his parents' home in a police patrol car while the police searched the home and arrested the parents. The policeman assigned to the boy's school commended the boy's action."[37]

"In the official DARE Implementation Guide, police officers are advised to be alert for signs of children who have relatives who use drugs. DARE officers are first and foremost police officers and thus are duty-bound to follow up leads that might come to their attention through inadvertent or indiscreet comments by young children."[38]

DARE Response to critics

"DARE has long dismissed criticism of its approach as flawed or the work of groups that favor decriminalization of drug use," according to the New York Times. [39] In a press release titled "Pro-drug Groups Behind Attack on Prevention Programs; DARE Seen as Target as Mayors' Conference Called to Combat Legalization Threat," DARE asserted that pro-drug legalization individuals and groups were behind criticisms of the program, which were portrayed as based on "vested interests" and "to support various individual personal agendas at the expense of our children." [40]

DARE has also attacked critics for allegedly being motivated by their financial self-interest in programs that compete with DARE. It has charged that "they are setting out to find ways to attack our programs and are misusing science to do it. The bottom line is that they don't want police officers to do the work, because they want it for themselves." [41] Critics have also been dismissed as simply being jealous of DARE's success. [42]

One DARE supporter has observed that "the group is its own worst enemy because it has spent so much effort attacking the evaluators, rather than learning from research." [43]

Despite the criticism and notable research facts, DARE is completely consistent with the "zero-tolerance orthodoxy of current U.S. drug control policy." According to researcher Dr. D. M. Gorman of the Rutgers University Center of Alcohol Studies, it supports the ideology and the “prevailing wisdom that exists among policy makers and politicians."[44] It also meets the needs of stake holders such as school districts,[45] parents, and law enforcement agencies. “Part of what makes DARE so popular is that participants get lots of freebies. There are fluorescent yellow pens with the DARE logo, tiny Daren dolls, bumper stickers, graduation certificates, DARE banners for school auditoriums, DARE rulers, pennants, Daren coloring books, and T-shirts for all DARE graduates.”[46]

"DARE America also has been very successful in marketing its program to the news media through a carefully orchestrated public relations campaign that highlights its popularity while downplaying criticism." [47]

Psychologists at the University of Kentucky concluded that "continued enthusiasm [for DARE] shows Americans' stubborn resistance to apply science to drug policy."[48]


The D.A.R.E. T-Shirt

One variation of the D.A.R.E T-shirt design
One variation of the D.A.R.E T-shirt design

The D.A.R.E T-shirt is a T-shirt awarded to students in the U.S. and in other countries who complete the D.A.R.E program and pledge to stay drug-free. The D.A.R.E. program now authorizes screen-printers to license their graphics. D.A.R.E. programs can create their own personalized shirts with different colors that incorporate the D.A.R.E. logo and either a school or local police agency logo.[citation needed]

The standard (and most recognized) shirt design is a black tee with the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) logo in red and accompanying text underneath in white printed on the front of the shirt. 'To Keep Kids Off Drugs' or 'To Resist Drugs and Violence' are common phrases printed on the shirt. The D.A.R.E. T-shirt was adopted from the Black concert T-shirt is associated with rock concerts. The classic black t-shirt has become a pop culture icon among youth and young adults in the U.S.[citation needed]

The sheriff of Lake County, Florida, explains that "all workbooks, materials and the very popular T-shirts must be purchased by the Sheriff's Office from D.A.R.E. America Inc. Often, the material and T-shirts could be purchased locally at less expense." He was surprised and disappointed to learn that the not-for-profit DARE corporation now also promotes the sale of its merchandise by for-profit businesses. These private companies can make 80% profit. Of the 20% returned to DARE America, Inc., by the companies, none is returned to the local areas from which the profits are derived to support the program.[49]

Parody of the shirt

The D.A.R.E. T-shirt has inspired parody T-shirts featuring backronyms such as "Drugs Are Really Excellent". One hemp enthusiast, Mark Hornaday, faced a 4-year prison term and a $20,000 fine from charges filed by the Los Angeles District Attorney's office in 1995. Hornaday created and sold a parody t-shirt, with the inscription, "I turned in my parents and all I got was this lousy t-shirt".[50]NORML defended the suit on free-speech grounds. Charges were eventually dropped.[51]

D.A.R.E. police cars

West Vancouver D.A.R.E. jeep
West Vancouver D.A.R.E. jeep

A number of D.A.R.E. programs in local police departments have some vehicles marked as police cars to promote the program. The D.A.R.E. cars appear at schools in parades. Typically these cars are high-end or performance cars that have been seized in a drug raid.[52] They are used to send the message that drug dealers forfeit all their glamorous trappings when they get caught. D.A.R.E. cars can also be regular police vehicles that are nearing the end of their service life that are pressed into service for the promotion[53], or new police cars outfitted especially for the D.A.R.E. program.[54]

D.A.R.E. in the UK

D.A.R.E. (UK)[55] is a national charity that operates across the UK. The program has been delivered (now discontinued) by Police Officers from the Ministry of Defence Police (MDP) to children who attend schools on Garrison estates or located near Garrison areas.

The D.A.R.E UK program is currently operating in the following areas:

  • East Midlands
  • South West
  • London
  • Wales

The program aims to:

  • Provide drug education and prevention activities to help children to understand the dangers of the misuse of drugs
  • Teach about the harmful effects of drugs, providing information that is appropriate to the age group to which it is delivered
  • Develop the life skills to resist peer pressure and personal pressure, and to avoid the misuse of drugs
  • Prevention is better than intervention
  • Educate primary and secondary school children, therefore preventing many of them from misusing drugs


The U.S. Department of Education prohibits any of its funding to be used to support drug prevention programs that have not been able to demonstrate their effectiveness. [56] Accordingly, D.A.R.E. America has instituted a major revision of its curriculum which is currently being evaluated for possible effectiveness in reducing drug use. [57] The U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has identified 66 alternative model programs, of which DARE is not listed.[58]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d DARE.com, the official website of the D.A.R.E. program.
  2. ^ About D.A.R.E.
  3. ^ Objectives for D.A.R.E. Elementary School Curriculum Lucia Romero. dare.com D.A.R.E. America (Word document)
  4. ^ D.A.R.E. Senior High Curriculum dare.com D.A.R.E. America. no date "Equal emphasis is placed on helping students to recognize and cope with feelings of anger without causing harm to themselves or others and without resorting to violence or the use of alcohol and drugs."
  5. ^ a b D.A.R.E is more than an anti-drug program dare.com. Ralph Lochridge. August 4, 2004. (Microsoft Word document)
  6. ^ a b David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., Surgeon General of the United States - Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General 2001., chapter five, Prevention and Intervention, box 5-2
  7. ^ Los Angeles Police Department - History of the LAPD - Chief Gates
  8. ^ Evans, Alice and Kris Bosworth - Building effective drug education programs. Phi Delta Kappa International Research Bulletin No 19, December, 1997.
  9. ^ Wysong, E., Aniskiewicz, R., & Wright, D. Truth and DARE: Tracking drug education to graduation and as symbolic politics. Social Problems, 1994, 41, 448-470.
  10. ^ a b Jeremy Travis, director of the National Institute of Justice - The D.A.R.E.® Program: A Review of Prevalence, User Satisfaction, and Effectiveness. October 1994 (PDF document) Quote:"While not conclusive, the findings suggest that D.A.R.E.® may benefit from using more interactive strategies and emphasizing social and general competencies. A revised D.A.R.E.® curriculum that includes more participatory learning was piloted in 1993 and is being launched nationwide this fall."
  11. ^ a b Christopher L. Ringwalt, Jody M. Greene, Susan T. Ennett, Ronaldo Iachan, Richard R. Clayton, Carl G. Leukefeld. Past and Future Directions of the D.A.R.E. Program: An Evaluation Review. Research Triangle Institute. September 1994. Supported under Award # 91-DD-CX-K053 from the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
  12. ^ Denise Hamilton - Hamilton, Denise. The Truth About DARE; The big-bucks antidrug program for kids doesn't work - Los Angeles New Times, March 20, 1997] Abstract: Joel Brown Ph.D. submitted a report in 1995 to the California Department of Education about the DATE and DARE programs. Quote: By 1995, Brown's five-researcher team had completed a 68-page report titled: In Their Own Voices: Students and Educators Evaluate California School-based Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Education (DATE) Programs. The report concluded that California's drug education programs, DARE being the largest of them, simply don't work. More than 40 percent of the students told researchers they were "not at all" influenced by drug educators or programs. Nearly 70 percent reported neutral to negative feelings about those delivering the antidrug (sic) message. While only 10 percent of elementary students responded to drug education negatively or indifferently, this figure grew to 33 percent of middle school students and topped 90 percent at the high school level.
  13. ^ President William Jefferson Clinton - , 1996 State of the Union Address, January 23, 1996
  14. ^ Susan Lehman - [http://www.salon.com/media/lehm/1999/02/04lehm.html Rolling Stone gathers a $50 million lawsuit; Condé Nast's firing line, part 57] Salon.com. February 4, 1999
  15. ^ Judge intends to dismiss libel suit filed by DARE. Los Angeles Times, April 18, 2000, p. 4
  16. ^ a b c Lawrence W. Sherman, Denise Gottfredson, Doris MacKenzie, John Eck, Peter Reuter, and Shawn Bushway - Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising. Report for the National Institute of Justice. Chapter 5. School-based Crime Prevention 1998. Quote: In summary, using the criteria adopted for this report, D.A.R.E. does not work to reduce substance use. The programs's (sic) content, teaching methods, and use of uniformed police officers rather than teachers might each explain its weak evaluations. No scientific evidence suggests that the D.A.R.E. core curriculum, as originally designed or revised in 1993, will reduce substance use in the absence of continued instruction more focused on social competency development. Any consideration of the D.A.R.E.'s potential as a drug prevention strategy should place D.A.R.E. in the context of instructional strategies in general. No instructional program is likely to have a dramatic effect on substance use. Estimates of the effect sizes of even the strongest of these programs are typically in the mid- to high-teens. D.A.R.E.'s meager effects place it at the bottom of the distribution of effect sizes, but none of the effects are large enough to justify their use as the centerpiece of a drug prevention strategy. Rather, such programs should be embedded within more comprehensive programs using the additional strategies identified elsewhere in this chapter.
  17. ^ Rosenbaum, D. P., and Gordon S. Hanson. Assessing the effects of school-based drug education: A six-year multilevel analysis of project D.A.R.E. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 1998, 35(4), 381-412. abstract, Full text at Schaffer Library of Drug Policy
  18. ^ Laugesen, W. The dire consequences of DARE. Boulder Weekly, December 4, 1998
  19. ^ Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Ph.D. Professor and Head and Gordon S. Hanson, Ph.D. Research Associate Department of Criminal Justice and Center for Research in Law and Justice University of Illinois at Chicago - Assessing the effects of School-based Drug Education: A Six-year Multi-Level Analysis of Project DARE by April 6, 1998. Media Awareness Project (MAP) Inc. d/b/a DrugSense
  20. ^ National Institute of Justice. Research in Brief, July, 1998. Summary of its Report to Congress, Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. (PDF document)
  21. ^ California Legislative Analyst's Office Analysis of the 2000-2001 Budget Bill. no date
  22. ^ Kanof, M. E. Youth Illicit Drug Use Prevention: D.A.R.E. Long-Term Evaluations and Federal Efforts to Identify Effective Programs Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, January 15, 2003. Letter to Senator Richard Durbin Quote: "six evaluations we reviewed were based on three separate studies in three states—Colorado, Kentucky, and Illinois. ... Each of the six evaluations, conducted at intervals ranging from 2 to 10 years after the fifth or sixth grade students were initially surveyed, suggested that D.A.R.E. had no statistically significant long-term effect on preventing illicit drug use." (pdf format
  23. ^ New School Curriculum Addresses Rx and OTC Drug Abuse. PRNewswire-USNewswire. December 12, 2007
  24. ^ http://www.dare.com/sponsors_supporters.asp D.A.R.E. web site]
  25. ^ Perrucci, R. and Wysong, E. The New Class Society. Latham, MD: Rowand & Littlefield, 2002, p. 223. ISBN 0742519384 No Supporting quote
  26. ^ [ http://www.laurel.md.us/pol_dare.htm Laurel Police Department - Community Policing - What is DARE?]. Laurel, MD Police Department. No Date. Quote: "Funding for Laurel's DARE Program is provided 100% through tax revenues or community donations. The City receives no grants from state or federal sources for our program. The City accepts donations from interested Community Groups or Corporate Sponsors to assist with funding for this program. Funds are used for teaching materials, awards, graduation tee-shirts, etc."
  27. ^ Washington County Sheriffs Office - DARE Fund raiser. Washington County, OR Sheriffs Office. January 20, 2005 (Example of call for fund raising). Quote:"The purpose of the event is to raise money for the Washington County Sheriff’s Office DARE program. The money raised will be used right here at home to buy materials for students and help pay for ongoing training of the DARE deputies."
  28. ^ Michael A. Ranatza, Executive Director of LA COLE - SFY 2007-2008 D.A.R.E. State Funding. Louisiana Commission on Law Enforcement. June 1, 2007. Abstract: Notification to Louisiana Sherriffs to Apply for DARE funds from State appropriation. Quote:"House Bill 1 of the 2007 Regular Session of the Legislature continues the appropriation of funds dedicated to the D.A.R.E. program from the Tobacco Tax Health Care Fund established by ACT 19 of the 2002 Regular Legislative Session. The LCLE will accept grant applications based on the projected appropriation to fund D.A.R.E. grants. Funds will be made available to eligible agencies based on revenue recognized by the Department of the Treasury for LCLE and approved for the operation of D.A.R.E. programs."
  29. ^ a b Shepard, III, Edward M. - The Economic Costs of D.A.R.E. Syracuse, NY: Le Moyne College, Institute of Industrial Relations. Research Paper Number 22, 2001
  30. ^ Gonnerman, Jennifer - Truth or D.A.R.E.: The Dubious Drug-Education Program Takes New York. Village Voice, April 7, 1999]
  31. ^ Sullum, Jacob. DARE Aware, Reason, January, 2001
  32. ^ Hamilton, Denise. The Truth About DARE; The big-bucks antidrug program for kids doesn't work. Los Angeles New Times, March 20, 1997
  33. ^ a b Drug prevention placebo: How DARE wastes time, money and police. Elliott, Jeff. Reason Magazine, March, 1995.
  34. ^ Children and Young People, Effective Alcohol Education: what Works with Underage Youths David J. Hanson Ph.D.
  35. ^ Miller, Joel. Bad Trip: How the War Against Drugs is Destroying America. NY: Nelson Thomas, 2004
  36. ^ Different Look at D.A.R.E.
  37. ^ Bovard, James. DARE scare: Turning children into informants? Washington Post, January 29, 1994 Available at Schaffer Library of Drug Policy, 1/29/94
  38. ^ Bovard, James. Destroying Families for the Glory of the Drug War, Part 1. Freedom Daily, February, 1997
  39. ^ Zernike, Kate. Anti-drug program says it will adopt a new strategy. The New York Times, February 15, 2001
  40. ^ [Elliott, Jeff. Drug prevention placebo: How DARE wastes time, money, and police. Reason, March, 1995. Available at http://www.reason.com/news/show/29645.html]
  41. ^ [Miller, David. DARE Chronicle of Higher Education, 10/19/01 Available at http://chronicle.com/weekly/v48/i08/08a01201.htm]
  42. ^ [Cauchon, Dennis. D.A.R.E. doesn't work: Studies find drug program not effective. USA Today, October 11, 1993. Available at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/dare6.htm]
  43. ^ [Cauchon, Dennis. D.A.R.E. doesn't work: Studies find drug program not effective. USA Today, October 11, 1993. Available at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/dare6.htm]
  44. ^ Gorman, D. M. Irrelevance of evidence in the development of school-based drug prevention policy. Evaluation Review, 1998, 22(1), 118-146.
  45. ^ Retsinas, J. Decision to cut off U.S. aid to D.A.R.E. Hailed. Providence Business News, 2001, 15(47), 5B.
  46. ^ http://www.druglibrary.org/think/~jnr/truthord.htm+DARE+%22Rolling+Stone%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=25&gl=us Gonnerman, Jennifer. Truth or D.A.R.E.: The dubious drug-education program takes New York. Village Voice, April 7, 1999.
  47. ^ Hamilton, Denise. The Truth About D.A.R.E.; The big-bucks antidrug program for kids doesn't work. Los Angeles New Times, March 20, 1997
  48. ^ Barry, Ellen. Study adds to doubts on D.A.R.E. program. Boston Globe, 8/2/99, p. A01
  49. ^ Chris Daniels - Sheriff upset by DARE’s profit system. Orlando Sentinel, May 7, 2006. Abstract: The Sheriff is urging people not to purchase DARE materials from anyone other than a law enforcement officer. He reports that otherwise, “buyers will only be lining the pockets of someone out to make a profit, and what little bit of money is passed along to DARE America Inc. will not make it back to our classrooms.”
  50. ^ NO JOKING MATTER: Spoof on D.A.R.E. draws ire from cops, prosecution by D.A. By Howard Blume, LA Weekly, November 17 1995
  51. ^ Charges Dropped Against Shop Owner Who Sold Shirts That Parodied D.A.R.E. Logo
  52. ^ Cool new car for DARE Old Bridge, NJ Police department 2006 Dodge Charger seized in a drug raid and outfitted using seized assets. Greater Media Newspapers - Suburban. December 13, 2007
  53. ^ Franconia Township Police Department. Franconia Township, PA. 2000 Ford Crown Victoria that was made available by Chief Joe (Joseph Kozeniewski) after it was retired from the duties of a Police patrol vehicle in 2003.
  54. ^ City of Burleson - D.A.R.E. Burleson, TX Police Department - dealer furnished new car
  55. ^ D.A.R.E UK
  56. ^ [http://www.reason.com/news/show/29003.html Moilanen, Rene. Just say no again. Reason, January, 2004.
  57. ^ New D.A.R.E. Program
  58. ^ SAMSHA Model Programs - Effective Substance Abuse and Mental Health Programs for Every community. December 2007

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